It seems almost universal for people to get a probable birth year from census data by subtracting the age from the census year. Certainly some websites and some census CDs provide this as "helpful" information. For me it isn't helpful and personally I always subtract one more year from the result.
All the 19th century censuses except 1841 were taken the first weekend in April, so people were three times more likely to have been born a year earlier. E.g. if a person was 24 in 1851, the accepted guess by subtracting one from the other seems to be 1827 for the birth year. But in point of fact, making of course the big assumption that the age is correct, this person was probably born between April 1826 and the end of March 1827. Born any later and (s)he would have been only 23 at the 1851 census. So for 1851 I subtract the ages from 1850, and similarly for the other censuses. 24 from 1850 gives 1826 which is the true "most probable birth year".
If you don't do this you may be looking in the wrong year when you go looking for details in the parish registers. Most baptisms took place before the child was three months old, and usually less than that. For someone who was "24" at the 1851 census, even the baptism may have taken place as early as April or May 1826, so I'd always start looking in 1826 and only go on to 1827 if I couldn't find what I was looking for.
In 1841 the census was taken in June, and ages above 15 are usually in a state of confusion reflecting the enumerators' understanding, or more usually lack of understanding, of the guidelines. Ages above 15 were supposed to be rounded down to the nearest multiple of 5, so that "20" stands for anything between 20 and 24 and so on. But many enumerators gave up, ignored the instructions and gave the exact age - and I always offer up silent thanks when they did!
But for ages under 15, or where the enumerator gave an age that was not a multiple of five, the birth still has seven chances out of twelve (and therefore still slightly more than 50%) of having taken place in the year before the one you get by merely subtracting the age from the census year.
Source: Tony Woodward (GOONS)
Address: 30 Canonbury Park South, London, N1 2FN, UK e-mail: email@example.com Phone: + 44 (0) 20 7704 0402(uk)
This policy governs the privacy of its users who choose to use it. It explains how we comply with the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), the DPA (Data Protection Act) [pre GDPR enforcement] and the PECR (Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations).
The DPA & GDPR May 2018
We and this website complies with the DPA (Data Protection Act 1998) and already complies with the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) which comes into effect from May 2018. We will update this policy accordingly after the completion of the UK's exit from the European Union.
Website Visitor Tracking
This website uses tracking software to monitor its visitors to better understand how they use it. The software will save a cookie to your computer’s hard drive in order to track and monitor your engagement and usage of the website, but will not store, save or collect personal information.
Downloads & Media Files
Any downloadable documents, files or media made available on this website are provided to users at their own risk. While all precautions have been undertaken to ensure only genuine downloads are available users are advised to verify their authenticity using third party anti-virus software or similar applications.
We accept no responsibility for third party downloads and downloads provided by external third party websites and advises users to verify their authenticity using third party anti-virus software or similar applications.
Contact & Communication With us
Users contacting us through this website do so at their own discretion and provide any such personal details requested at their own risk. Your personal information is kept private and stored securely until a time it is no longer required or has no use.
Where we have clearly stated and made you aware of the fact, and where you have given your express permission we may use your details to send you products/services information through a mailing list system. This is done in accordance with the regulations described above.
Email Mailing List & Marketing Messages
We operate an email mailing list program, used to inform subscribers (guests and members) about products, services and/or news we supply/publish. Users can subscribe through an online automated process where they have given their explicit permission. Subscriber personal details are collected, processed, managed and stored in accordance with the regulations described above. Subscribers can unsubscribe at any time by emailing Rod at firstname.lastname@example.org. The type and content of marketing messages subscribers receive, and if it may contain third party content, is clearly outlined at the point of subscription.
Email marketing messages may contain tracking beacons / tracked clickable links or similar server technologies in order to track subscriber activity within email marketing messages. Where used, such marketing messages may record a range of subscriber data relating to engagement, geographic, demographics and already stored subscriber data.
Address sharing between guests and members
One of our purposes is to encourage interaction between members and guests. When you input your address (email or postal) it is used in certain parts of the web site to facilitate communication between members and guests, such as on Meet an O’Donoghue or Name Variants. In order to access this data one must have logged in using a secure password. The Administrators of the web site can access your personal details but not your password.
If you do not believe that there is a legitimate interest in this mutual processing and sharing of information then you must log in to the site, access your Profile and remove the data that concerns you.
External Website Links & Third Parties
Although we only look to include quality, safe and relevant external links, users are advised to adopt a policy of caution before clicking any external web links mentioned throughout this website. External links are clickable text / banner / image links to other websites, such as those made available in the Useful genealogical links area of the society web site.
Shortened URL's; URL shortening is a technique used on the web to shorten URL's (Uniform Resource Locators) to something substantially shorter. This technique is especially used in social media and looks similar to this (example: http://bit.ly/zyVoUBo). Users should take caution before clicking on shortened URL links and verify their authenticity before proceeding.
We cannot guarantee or verify the contents of any externally linked website despite our best efforts. Users should therefore note they click on external links at their own risk and we cannot be held liable for any damages or implications caused by visiting any external links mentioned.
Social Media Principles & Usage
The Society’s Social Media Principles are offered to help us (the Society and its guests and members) conduct ourselves with care online.
Social media networks – Facebook, Twitter and others – provide useful reporting and promotional tools.
- Integrity is our most important commodity: Avoid writing or posting anything that would embarrass the Society or your research objectives.
- Assume that your professional life and your personal life will merge online regardless of your care in separating them.
- Even if you use privacy tools (determining who can view your page or profile, for instance), assume that everything you write, exchange or receive on a social media site is public.
- Be aware of perceptions. If you “friend” a source or join a group on one side of a debate, do so with the other side as well. Also understand that readers may view your participation in a group as your acceptance of its views; be clear that you’re looking for research ideas or simply collecting information. Consider that you may be an observer of online content without actively participating.
- While we may have official profiles on social media platforms users are advised to verify authenticity of such profiles before engaging with, or sharing information with them. We will never ask for user passwords or personal details on social media platforms. Users are advised to conduct themselves appropriately when engaging with us on social media.
- There may be instances where our website features social sharing buttons, which help share web content directly from web pages to the respective social media platforms. You use social sharing buttons at your own discretion and accept that doing so may publish content to your social media profile feed or page.