Texas Revolution 1835-6

In the Texas Revolution of 1835-36, American colonists in Texas secured the independence of that area from Mexico and subsequently established a republic. Since the 1820s many settlers from the United States had colonized Texas; by the 1830s they far outnumbered the Texas Mexicans. Mexican dictator Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna attempted to reverse this trend by such measures as abolishing slavery and enforcing the collection of customs duties. The settlers rebelled (originally as part of a general federalist resistance to Santa Anna’s Centralist government, which had overthrown the Mexican Constitution of 1824). Hostilities began at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835; the Texans repelled a Mexican force sent to disarm them and won subsequent victories.

In February 1836, Santa Anna, undiscouraged, led a large army across the Rio Grande; he was delayed, however, by the unexpectedly determined defense of the Alamo. Meanwhile, the Texans declared their independence from Mexico on Mar. 2, 1836, and organized a provisional government. Sam Houston led a successful retreat, but other insurgents were defeated and massacred in late March. Santa Anna pursued the rebels, overstretching his supply line and thus isolating his forces on San Jacinto Prairie. There, on April 21, he was routed by Houston and taken prisoner. Mexican troops then withdrew from Texas. The Republic of Texas (with its Lone Star flag) remained independent until 1845, when it became part of the United States.
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